Le Medicines Patent Pool est une organisation de santé publique soutenue par les Nations Unies dont la mission est d’améliorer l’accès aux traitements contre le VIH, l’hépatite C virale et la tuberculose dans les pays à revenus faible et intermédiaire. Au travers de son modèle économique innovant, le Medicines Patent Pool collabore avec l’industrie, la société civile, des organisations internationales, des groupes de patients et d’autres acteurs afin d’établir des priorités et des prévisions, de délivrer des licences sur les médicaments indispensables et de centraliser les actifs de propriété intellectuelle pour faciliter la fabrication de médicaments génériques et l’élaboration de nouvelles formulations.
À ce jour, le Medicines Patent Pool a signé des accords avec neuf titulaires de brevets pour douze antirétroviraux contre le VIH, deux antiviraux à action directe contre l’hépatite C et un traitement contre la tuberculose. Les fabricants de médicaments génériques avec lesquels il collabore ont distribué 4.7 milliards de doses de médicaments à faible coût dans 131 pays, dont 113 pays qui ne bénéficiaient auparavant pas de la compétition des médicaments génériques (janvier 2012 – décembre 2016). Ces chiffres ont été calculés par l’entreprise d’audit et de conseil KPMG. Accédez au rapport (en anglais). Le Medicines Patent Pool a été créé et reste financé par Unitaid.
The MPP by the Numbers
9 Patent holders with MPP signed agreements
17 Generic manufacturers and product developers sublicensed from the MPP
16 Products licensed to the organisation
100+ On-going pharmaceutical development projects
87% to 94% of people living with HIV in developing countries covered by the MPP adults licences
92 to 131 Countries covered by MPP adults licences
312 Million dollars saved from 2012 to June 2016
The audit and advisory firm KPMG calculated the savings of $312 million and supply of 12.9 million patient-years of treatments through MPP’s generic partners. See report here.
The MPP has signed agreements for twelve priority HIV medicines, two hepatitis C medicines, one tuberculosis treatment and an HIV technology platform with patent holders AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, MSD, Pharco Pharmaceuticals, the US National Institute of Health, the University of Liverpool and ViiV Healthcare.
The licences include patented ARVs the World Health Organization recommends for first- and second-line treatments for adults and children of different age groups as well as treatments on the WHO Essential Medicines List. Licences also include new promising ARVs that likely will be central to treatment in the future.
MPP licences enable the manufacturing of generic ARVs and their sale in countries where between 87 and 94% of people with HIV in the developing world live. This includes all low-income countries and 50-80% of World Bank classified middle-income economies.
In addition, MPP negotiated an agreement with F. Hoffmann-La Roche to provide an up to 90% reduction in the price of a key treatment for HIV-related cytomegalovirus infection in 138 countries.
For a summary of the features of each MPP licence please click here.
Licensing terms and conditions
The Access to Medicines Index and other stakeholders have recognised the terms and conditions of the MPP licences as being pro-access, having the greatest flexibilities and broadest geographical scope.
Agreements with Generic Manufacturers
The MPP is currently managing 100 pharmaceutical development projects with manufacturers to help speed availability of quality-assured generic versions of new treatments, including new fixed-dose combinations.
Sublicences with 17 generic manufacturers and product developers are already enabling the development, manufacturing and sale of HIV and hepatitis C medicines in a large number of developing countries.
In May 2014, MPP joined its funder Unitaid, as well as the DNDi and the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) to launch the Paediatric HIV Treatment Initiative (PHTI) to accelerate the development of HIV paediatric formulations and ensure their availability in developing countries. In April 2016, MPP and the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development signed a memorandum of understanding to ensure access of future developed tuberculosis regimens in resource-limited settings.
Savings through MPP Licences
MPP estimates that the international community could save a total of USD 1.4 billion through the procurement of cheaper generic medicines thanks to the voluntary licences negotiated by the MPP. Savings estimates are calculated on the basis of forecasts developed in consultation with the World Health Organization and other leading organisations.*
MPP licences have already generated USD 312 million in savings for the international community and since 2012, 12.9 million patient-years of WHO recommended ARVs, hepatitis C and tuberculosis medicines have been supplied by MPP’s generic partners.  Lower royalties, as well as the ability of generic manufacturers to sell licensed products in more countries, have allowed governments and international agencies to buy the drugs at lower prices and thus stretch their treatment dollars.
All MPP licences are publicly available in their entirety on the MPP website. This is unprecedented in the pharmaceutical field.
As part of the MPP’s mission to improve patent transparency, in 2016 the MPP launched its new Medicines Patents and Licences Database (MedsPaL) an upgrade to its original Patent Status Database. MedsPaL includes patent and licensing data on HIV, hepatitis C and tuberculosis treatment covering 4,000 national patent applications in more than 100 low- and middle-income countries.
* Estimates do not include: (i) Possible future savings from licensing compounds that are currently in early stage clinical trials (i.e. phases 1 and 2); (ii) Efficiencies in procurement generated by the transparency created by the MPP Patent Status Database; (iii) Savings from licences covering secondary patents (with few exceptions); (iv) Savings from additional competition generated by MPP licences in countries already covered by pre-existing licences; (v) Effects of the normative changes created by the MPP through spread of licensing terms negotiated by the MPP in its licences; (vi) Public health impact of new paediatric formulations being developed with MPP licences; (vii) Public health impact of earlier availability of fixed-dose combinations on new ARVs based on MPP licences.
 During the period January 2012 to December 2016