El Medicines Patent Pool es una organización de salud pública respaldada por las Naciones Unidas que trabaja para aumentar el acceso a tratamientos contra el VIH, la hepatitis viral C y la tuberculosis en países de ingreso bajo y medio. A través de su modelo innovador, el MPP colabora con la industria, la sociedad civil, las organizaciones internacionales, los grupos de pacientes y otras partes interesadas para priorizar, pronosticar y otorgar licencias para medicamentos necesarios y consolidar la propiedad intelectual a fin de alentar la producción genérica y el desarrollo de nuevas formulaciones.
Hasta la fecha, el MPP ha firmado acuerdos con nueve titulares de patentes para doce antirretrovirales, dos antivirales de acción directa contra la hepatitis C y un tratamiento contra la tuberculosis. Los sublicenciatarios genéricos del MPP han distribuido 4.700 millones de dosis de medicamentos de bajo costo en 131 países, incluidos 113 países que anteriormente no podían beneficiarse de la competencia de los genéricos (enero de 2012 – diciembre de 2016). Estos números fueron calculados por la firma de auditoría y asesoría KPMG. Acceder al informe (en ingles). El MPP fue fundado y sigue financiado por Unitaid.
The MPP by the Numbers
9 Patent holders with MPP signed agreements
20 Generic manufacturers and product developers sublicensed from the MPP
16 Products licensed to the organisation
100+ On-going pharmaceutical development projects
87% to 91% of people living with HIV in developing countries covered by the MPP adults licences
92 to 131 Countries covered by MPP adults licences
312 Million dollars saved from 2012 to June 2016
The audit and advisory firm KPMG calculated the savings of $312 million and supply of 12.9 million patient-years of treatments through MPP’s generic partners. See report here.
The MPP has signed agreements for twelve priority HIV medicines, two hepatitis C medicines, one tuberculosis treatment and an HIV technology platform with patent holders AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, MSD, Pharco Pharmaceuticals, the United States National Institute of Health, the University of Liverpool and ViiV Healthcare.
The licences include patented ARVs the World Health Organization recommends for first- and second-line treatments for adults and children of different age groups as well as treatments on the WHO Essential Medicines List. Licences also include new promising ARVs that likely will be central to treatment in the future.
MPP licences enable the manufacturing of generic ARVs and their sale in countries where between 87 and 91% of people with HIV in the developing world live. This includes all low-income countries and 50-80% of World Bank classified middle-income economies.
In addition, MPP negotiated an agreement with F. Hoffmann-La Roche to provide an up to 90% reduction in the price of a key treatment for HIV-related cytomegalovirus infection in 138 countries.
For a summary of the features of each MPP licence please click here.
Licensing terms and conditions
The Access to Medicines Index and other stakeholders have recognised the terms and conditions of the MPP licences as being pro-access, having the greatest flexibilities and broadest geographical scope.
Agreements with Generic Manufacturers
The MPP is currently managing 100 pharmaceutical development projects with manufacturers to help speed availability of quality-assured generic versions of new treatments, including new fixed-dose combinations.
Sublicences with 20 generic manufacturers and product developers are already enabling the development, manufacturing and sale of HIV and hepatitis C medicines in a large number of developing countries.
In May 2014, MPP joined its funder Unitaid, as well as the DNDi and the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) to launch the Paediatric HIV Treatment Initiative (PHTI) to accelerate the development of HIV paediatric formulations and ensure their availability in developing countries. In April 2016, MPP and the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development signed a memorandum of understanding to ensure access of future developed tuberculosis regimens in resource-limited settings.
Savings through MPP Licences
MPP estimates that the international community could save a total of USD 1.4 billion through the procurement of cheaper generic medicines thanks to the voluntary licences negotiated by the MPP. Savings estimates are calculated on the basis of forecasts developed in consultation with the World Health Organization and other leading organisations.*
MPP licences have already generated USD 312 million in savings for the international community and since 2012, 12.9 million patient-years of WHO recommended ARVs, hepatitis C and tuberculosis medicines have been supplied by MPP’s generic partners.  Lower royalties, as well as the ability of generic manufacturers to sell licensed products in more countries, have allowed governments and international agencies to buy the drugs at lower prices and thus stretch their treatment dollars.
All MPP licences are publicly available in their entirety on the MPP website. This is unprecedented in the pharmaceutical field.
As part of the MPP’s mission to improve patent transparency, in 2016 the MPP launched its new Medicines Patents and Licences Database (MedsPaL) an upgrade to its original Patent Status Database. MedsPaL includes patent and licensing data on HIV, hepatitis C and tuberculosis treatment covering 4,000 national patent applications in more than 100 low- and middle-income countries.
* Estimates do not include: (i) Possible future savings from licensing compounds that are currently in early stage clinical trials (i.e. phases 1 and 2); (ii) Efficiencies in procurement generated by the transparency created by the MPP Patent Status Database; (iii) Savings from licences covering secondary patents (with few exceptions); (iv) Savings from additional competition generated by MPP licences in countries already covered by pre-existing licences; (v) Effects of the normative changes created by the MPP through spread of licensing terms negotiated by the MPP in its licences; (vi) Public health impact of new paediatric formulations being developed with MPP licences; (vii) Public health impact of earlier availability of fixed-dose combinations on new ARVs based on MPP licences.
 During the period January 2012 to December 2016